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Active Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wintering Waterbirds in Northeast Italy, 2020–2021

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In their active surveillance in migratory birds in winter 2020-2021, our DELTA-FLU partner Italy, detected HPAIV H5Nx with high prevalence in Eurasian teals and dabbling ducks where HP and LP AIV co-infections were detected.

 

The increasing involvement of wild waterfowl in H5 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) circulation continues to pose a threat to animal and public health worldwide. In winter 2020–2021, two field surveillance activities were carried out on a weekly basis, through virological
and serological analyses, in 823 hunted and 521 trapped migratory aquatic birds in northeast Italy. Sixty Eurasian teals were recaptured several times, which allowed us to follow the progression of the HPAI H5 infection in naturally infected wild waterfowl. Oropharyngeal, cloacal, and feather
swabs (OS, CS and FS) were collected from each duck and tested by real time rRT-PCR Type A influenza. The identified viruses were characterized and pathotyped by sequencing. Several viruses belonging to three different HPAI H5 subtypes were detected: H5N8, H5N5, and H5N1. High prevalence
of infection with HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4b during November–December 2020 (up to 27.1%) was observed in captured Eurasian teals, while infection rates in hunted dabbling ducks, mainly Eurasian wigeons, showed the highest prevalence of infection in November 2020 (8.9%) and January
2021 (10.2%). All HPAI positive birds were also clinically healthy when recaptured weeks apart. The OS and FS showed the highest detection efficiency of HPAIV. Our results highlight that HPAI passive surveillance should be complemented by a targeted active surveillance to more efficiently
detect novel HPAI viruses.

https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112188